The S-400 Triumph is a Russian air defence missile system created by Almaz Central Design Bureau (NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler). The Russian Army’s S-300P and S-200 air defence systems were replaced by the new system.
The S-400 is a surface-to-air missile system that was created as an upgrade to the S-300 series. In April 2007, the system went into service, and the first S-400 was deployed in battle in August 2007. In the Moscow region, the Baltic exclave of Kaliningrad, and the Eastern Military District, Russia established four S-400 regiments to defend national airspace.By the end of 2012, the air defence troops of the Southern Military District had been rearmed with the upgraded S-400 Triumph.
Orders and deliveries of S-400 Triumph
By 2015, the Russian Armed Forces had received almost 20 battalions of S-400 Triumph. By 2020, Russia aims to deploy 56 S-400 battalions.
By July 2019, Russia had delivered two S-400 Triumph regiments to China’s Armed Forces.
During the IDEF 2009 expo, Turkey expressed interest in purchasing S-400 air defence systems. The first batch of S-400 Triumphs was delivered to Turkey in July 2019 after a contract was inked in April 2017.
In October 2018, Rosoboronexport agreed to deliver the S-400 missile system to India.
S-400 Triumph features
A multifunction radar, autonomous detection and targeting systems, anti-aircraft missile systems, launchers, and a command and control centre are all part of the S-400 Triumph air defence system. It can fire three different types of missiles to build a layered defence.
Within a range of 400 kilometres and at altitudes of up to 30 kilometres, the system can engage all forms of aerial targets, including aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and ballistic and cruise missiles. The system can engage 36 targets at once.
The S-400 is twice as effective as earlier Russian air defence systems, and it can be set up in under five minutes. It can also be integrated with the airforce, army, and navy’s present and future air defence forces.
S-400 Triumph missiles
In addition to the missiles used by the S-300PMU system, the S-400 missile system employs four new missile types. The 48N6DM was the first missile to be introduced into the system (48N6E3). It’s a more powerful version of the 48N6M with a better propulsion system. The missile has a range of 250 kilometres and can destroy aerial targets.
The S-400’s 40N6 missile has a range of 400 kilometres and employs active radar homing to intercept air targets at large distances. It can be used to attack high-value targets like as AWACS, J-STARS, and EA-6B support jammers.
The S-400 Triumph also launches 9M96E and 9M96E2 medium range ground-to-air missiles. Designed for direct impact, the missiles can strike fast moving targets such as fighter aircraft with a high hit probability. The maximum range of the 9M96 missile is 120km.
Command and control
The S-400 Triumph’s 55K6E command and control system is based on the Ural-532301 mobile command post truck. The command post is outfitted with LCD consoles for processing the different batteries’ air space surveillance data. It coordinates other batteries, controls and monitors long-range surveillance radar, tracks airborne threats, prioritises threats, and controls and monitors long-range surveillance radar.
Other defence systems, such as the SA-12, SA-23, and S-300, can exchange data with the system.
S-400 Triumph radars
The 92N6E is the S-400’s fire control and target tracking radar (Nato Codename: Gravestone). The radar is based on a vehicle called the MZKT-7930 808. When the S-400 battery is deployed autonomously, the 96L6 Cheese Board 3D surveillance and tracking radar can be carried by the same vehicle.
The S-400’s acquisition and battle management radar, the 91N6E Big Bird, is based on the 8-8 trailer. Within a 600-kilometer range, the radar can identify and track aircraft, rotorcraft, cruise missiles, guided missiles, drones, and ballistic rockets. It can track up to 300 targets at the same time.
Launch vehicle of S-400 missile system
The SP85TE2 launchers are based on the MAZ-79100 series Transporter-Erector-Launcher (TEL) vehicle or the BAZ-64022 6 tractor truck. The TEL vehicle may transport up to four launch tubes, each with a different type of missile.
What is CAATSA?
On August 2, 2017, US President Donald Trump signed the ‘Countering America’s Adversaries Through Penalties Act’ (Public Law 115-44), which included fresh sanctions against Iran, Russia, and North Korea, among other things.
CAATSA is a law that was especially intended to prevent revenue from travelling to Russia.
Under CAATSA, the US can impose penalties on India for the multibillion-dollar transaction it struck with Russia in October 2018.
India, on the other hand, is adamant that its links with Russia are historical, and that CAATSA is a US legislation, not a UN resolution.