Class 6 is the year that sets the foundation for future higher classes. Hence, it is crucial for students to understand the subject thoroughly. One of the best ways to comprehend all the concepts of the entire chapters of the subject is to refer to the chapter-wise CBSE Class 6 Civics Notes. Civics is also the main sub-subject of Social Science. Hence, scoring well in this will ensure that the marks for Social Science are good.
Benefits of CBSE Class 6 Civics Notes
- Notes help to understand all the concepts covered in the chapters
- Gives a complete overview of the textbook
- One of the best sources to recall and revise the subject for exams
- Notes cover all the concepts and topics, as per the syllabus
- Available online, these notes can also be downloaded and referred as per convenience and preference
Keep referring to the CBSE Class 6 Notes to prepare for the exam and score high marks.
Chapter – 01 Political Science NCERT Class 6th Understanding Diversity Notes
- From nature, mankind inherits a variety of things. These include plants, trees, flowers, birds, animals, religion, race, culture and color.
- Diversity: The differences in race, religion, caste, etc. is known as diversity.
- Social Groups:
- (i) Human beings cannot fulfill all their needs on their own. They depend on other social groups to fulfill these needs.
- (ii) The various groups are family, community, nation and universe.
- Can Friends be Different:
- Nothing stops people from different backgrounds from becoming friends.
- Right to Education (RTE) has made provision for poor family children to study in public schools. This reduce diversity.
- How Do we Explain Diversity:
- Main initially led a nomadic life.
- In later stages, men began to cooperate and intermingled with each other.
- It led to emergence of diversity.
- Diversity and Interdependence:
- Within a social group, diverse types of activities are performed depending on their skills, interests and education.
- To fulfill one’s needs people depend on others.
- With the onset of globalization, the concept of interdependence between diverse areas has got a boost.
- Unity in Diversity:
- India is a land where unity and diversity go hand in hand.
- Indians joined hands against ‘Phirangi Sahebs’ to liberate the country.
- Pt. Nehru in his book, ‘Discovery of India’, wrote that Indian unity is not something imposed from outside by rather it is something deeper and within its folds.
- Ladakh and Kerala:
- Ladakh is a cold desert in Jammu and Kashmir where sheep is domesticated and Buddhism is the main region.
- Kerala is South India is a multi-religious state and is famous for its spices and fish.
Chapter – 02 Political Science NCERT Class 6th Diversity and Discrimination Notes
- Difference and Prejudice:
- All 8 major religions are practiced in India which has over 1,600 languages.
- Sometimes, people with very strange and unfamiliar ideas meet us.
- Differences in people exist on various grounds.
- These differences lead to prejudice. Prejudice means to judge other people negatively or see them as inferior.
- Creating Stereotype:
- As children grow up, boys and girls are taught to do certain types of tasks.
- These are based on certain types of stereotype images. It means to fix people into one particular image.
- Inequality and Discrimination:
- Discrimination happens when people act on their prejudices or stereotypes.
- Discrimination can take place because of several reasons.
- Groups of people who may speak a certain language, follow a particular religion, live in specific regions, etc. may be discriminated against as their customs or practices may be seen as inferior.
- People may suffer discrimination on economic or social grounds. Tribal, some religious groups and even particular regions are discriminated against for one or more of these reasons.
- • On Being Discriminated Against:
- People are engaged in certain types of occupations. Certain kinds of jobs are more valued than others.
- Caste rules were set which did not allow the so called untouchables to take on work, other than what they were meant to do.
- Dr Ambedkar suffered discrimination when he was only of nine years in school.
- He emerged as the pioneer of rights of Dalits. He believed the Dalits must fight against caste system.
- • Striving for Equality:
- The struggle for freedom against British rule also strived for equality.
- Dalits, women, tribals and peasants have fought for long ending inequality.
- After Independence, the framers of the Indian Constitution aimed for ending inequality.
- People were allowed freedom to follow their religion, speak their language, celebrate their festivals and expose themselves freely.
- To guarantee equality, India became a secular state.
Chapter – 03 Political Science NCERT Class 6th What is Government? Notes
- Every country needs a government to run the country according to some laws.
- The government plays an important role in our lives and does a number of things for the people.
- Need for a Government:
- The government is required to maintain law and order in a country.
- Government makes provision for services like roads, electricity, waterways, railways, health and sanitation, etc.
- Government even protects against external aggression and is responsible for maintaining unity and integrity of the country.
- Level of Government:
- Government in any country functions at several levels-central, state and local.
- Central government looks after nation, state after the provinces and local looks after the villages and towns.
- Laws and the Government:
- Laws are made by the government and as citizens of a country, people have to abide by it.
- Government even has the power to enforce these laws.
- Courts have the power to give justice to the aggrieved party.
- • Types of Government:
- The laws are made by the government in a manner depending on the type of government in the country.
- There are two types of governments: Democratic and Authoritarian.
- In a democratic government people have a right to choose their representatives. For example, India, UK and USA.
- Authoritarian governments are where there is absolute obedience to the authority. Examples of such type of governments are Saudi Arabia and Myanmar.
Chapter – 04 Political Science NCERT Class 6th Key Elements of a Democratic Government Notes
- For long people have struggled for their rights.
- It is generally perceived that democracy is the best system to give rights to people.
- Ending of Racial Discrimination:
- The continent of South Africa is very close to the Asian subcontinent.
- For over nearly six decades in later part of the 20th century, the country was in the news for the practice of apartheid or racial discrimination.
- Majority of the South African population was of blacks. The white settlers who settled here pursued a policy of ruthless suppression towards the black majority.
- The discrimination was so apparent that everyone could see it.
- After several decades of endless struggle, the policy of racial discrimination towards blacks came to an end in 1994 with Nelson Mandela being sworn in as a black President.
- For a successful democracy, it is essential for people to participate in its governance.
- This participation takes place through voting in elections.
- In India, general elections are held after every five years to keep a check on the government.
- Other ways of Participation:
- In addition to election, there are several other ways of participation.
- Some such methods are dharnas, rallies, strikes, signature campaigns and other form of protests.
- Mass media like TV, newspapers, magazines and other agencies also play a major role in highliting public issues and moulding public opinion.
- Need to Resolve Conflicts: Role of Government:
- In any country problems may result in conflicts and lead to unpleasantness.
- There may arise a situation when two people or two groups feel that they are not being treated fairly or are being discriminated on grounds of culture, region, religion, economic background, caste, race, etc.
- It is the government’s responsibility to resolve these conflicts.
- Rivers as a Source of Conflict
- The water flowing between two states or countries can lead to a conflict.
- For example, Tamil Nadu in India would get water only if Karnataka releases it and this leads to conflict.
- It has led to creation of a tribunal to see sharing of river water in these states.
- Equality and Justice:
- One of the main responsibilities of a democracy is giving impartial justice and equality to all.
- Equality and Justice are two different sides of the same coin and are inserparable in democracy. They go hand in hand.
- Dr. Ambedkar, had waged a long struggle for getting rights to Dalits or untouchables.
- Laws were made to abolish untochability.
- Likewise, the Hindu Marriage Act provides equal inheritacnce right to daughters in their father’s property.
- Without justice and equality democracy would remain meaningless and directionless.
Chapter – 05 Political Science NCERT Class 6th Panchayati Raj Notes
- Since accident times, India has always had a well-developed system of local administration at the rural level.
- This was rooted through the institution of Panchayati Raf at the rural or village level.
- Literally Panchayat means a committee of five people.
- Till 1993, the institution of Panchayat as under the control of the state government.
- Sinch 1993, the 73rd constitutional amendment gave Panchayat a legal status and has made it mandatory for the state to hold elections after every five years.
- Panchayati Raj in India:
- At present, Panachayati Raj consists of three levels:
- Gram Sabha which elects Gram Panchayat at village level.
- Panchayat Samiti at the block level.
- Zila Parishad at the district level.
- At present, Panachayati Raj consists of three levels:
- Gram Sabha:
- It is organized in every village.
- Gram Sabha consists of all adul citizens above 18 years.
- The functions of Gram Sabha are to elect Gram Panchayat, Pradhan and make budget by reviewing progress of the village.
- Gram Panchayat at Village Level:
- Gram Panchayat is elected by Gram Sabha.
- It has seats reserved for SC/ST and 33% seats are reserved for women.
- Gram Panchayat elects Sarpanch who presides over the meetings of the Panchayat.
- Gram Panchayat performs public welfare activities, look after the health and education and records death and birth in the state.
- Panchayat Samiti at Block Level:
- All problems of the village cannot be solved at local level.
- To examine the working of Gram Panchayat, there is provision of Panchayat Samiti at the block level.
- It includeds all Sarpanchs of village panchayats, Chairman of Town Area Committee, B.D.O., members of Zila Parishad from the block, all area MPs and MLA’s and representatives of SC/ST and women.
- The functions of Panchayat Samiti are to look after health matter, literacy, etc.
- Zila Parishad at District Level:
- Zila Parishad is at the highest level.
- It consists of Chairman of all Block Samities, area MP’s and MLA’s, five representatives from each registered cooperative society, and one representative each of registered social reform committees.
- It coordinates the functioning of Block Samities.
Chapter – 06 Political Science NCERT Class 6th Rural Administration Notes
• India is a vast country with a vast land area.
• There are more than six lakh village in India.
• It is not provide basic necessities like water, electricity and roads to all these villages.
• To keep villages on track, it is necessary to maintain law and oarder in villages and keep a
record of its land and revenue. This is the task of rural administration.
• Dispute: Police Station
(i) In case of a dispute, in an area people go to the police station.
(ii) A particular police station works for a particular area and all people living in that area
are to report any crime, theft, accident or injury, etc. in their own police station.
(iii) In a dispute when a person files a report in the police station it is called First
Information Report (FIR).
• Maintenance of Land Records
(i) The village Patwari keeps a record of the land areas kept by people.
(ii) A Patwari deals with measuring land and maintaining the land records belonging to
(iii) The village Patwari is also responsible for the collection of land revenue from the
(iv) The Patwari is assisted by other officers.
• Rural Administration: How does it Work Efficiently:
(i) India is divided into states and union territories. These territories are in turn divided
(ii) In order to run the administration, the district comprises of adjacent villages and
towns. The district headquarters are locted at a central place. The revenue
department manages all work related to land.
(iii) The district collector is the head of the revenue department. Tehsildar, Naib tehsildar,
etc. assist him in his work.
• Hindu Law (Hindu Succession Amendment Act 2005)
(i) In ancient times only sons got a share in their father’s property.
(ii) After the Hindu Succession Amendment Act 2005 women are entitled to an equal
share in their father’s property.
Chapter – 07 Political Science NCERT Class 6th Urban Administration Notes
• In recent times, there has been a rapid growth in the rate of urbanization due to growth of
cities spread over big areas.
• With the evolution of cities, evolved the problem of narrow roads, traffic jams, water and
electricity shortage, crowded hospitals and lack of basic civic amenities.
• Some children broke a tubelight on the street. They ran to the municipal office where they
were told that it was maintained by the municipality.
(i) A municipality is either in the form of a Municipal Committee or Municipal Council. It
is found in towns and small cities.
(ii) All citizens who are of 18 years and above can vote in the elections. The candidates
who wish to contest elections must be 21 years or above.
(iii) Seats are reserved for SC/ST and 33% seats are reserved for women.
(iv) The Council is headed by a Councillor. Big cities consist of Municipal Corporation.
(v) The chief executive officer of the Municipal Corporation is called Municipal
(vi) The day-to-day work of Municipality is carried out with a number of committees.
(vii) The Municipal Corporation provides for hospitals, public utilities, record of births and
deaths and builds roads, bridges, etc.
(viii) Sometimes, community protests to the municipality to take immediate action of their
(ix) Since loads of municipality have increased, workload of municipality is being shared
by private contractors.
(x) Surat city has set a role model for controlling epidemics like situation.
Chapter – 08 Political Science NCERT Class 6th Rural Livelihoods Notes
• There are several kinds of livelihoods in rural areas.
• Kalpattu Village
(i) Kalpattu in Tamil Nadu is a village near to the sea coast.
(ii) Ploughing is not done here. People are busy in activities like making pots, utensils,
weaving baskets and making bricks in kilns.
(iii) It has a number of shops, Tea, cloth, barber, shop, tailor, etc. are some major shops
• Life in Rural Areas:
(i) Work in rural areas in found only in the harvesting season.
(ii) People work as a daily labourers.
(iii) Women have to do their domestic duties and event work outside.
(iv) People find it difficult even to meet their base existence or basic necessities.
(v) About two-third of India’s agricultural labourers are landless labourers.
(vi) Since farmers do not have money they fall in a debt trap.
• Agricultural Labourers and Farmers in India:
(i) In India only 20% of farmer can boast of a good lifestyle.
(ii) Hoarding makes farmers suffer.
• Coastal Areas:
(i) People in coastal areas into face a tough life.
(ii) Fishing is their main occupation. But when the fishermen are out, it is not known
whether they will come back or not.
(iii) Fishermen are unsafe for four months during monsoon season. It is a lean period for
(iv) There is constant battle for survival among majority of people in rural areas.
Chapter – 09 Political Science NCERT Class 6th Urban Livelihoods Notes
• India can easily boast of as many as five thousand towns and nearly twenty-seven big cities.
• These big cities are also known as metropolis or simply as metros. They have a population of
more than a million people each.
• The big cities are Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai and Kolkata. In these cities, more than a million
people live and work.
• Occupations: There are three types of occupation: primary, secondary and tertiary. In
primary occupation people are engaged in agriculture, in secondary occupation people are
engaged in manufacturing and processing or raw material, in tertiary occupations they are
engaged in providing services.
• Types of Livelihoods:
(i) In urban areas different types of people reside and they practice different types of
(ii) They are divided as factory workers who work hard day and night but are unable to
get good salaries.
(iii) Shopkeepers and businessman are busy in selling and buying of differnet types of
(iv) Professionals like teachers, doctors, lawyers, etc. form core of the urban population.
They provide services.
(v) There are some urban people who practice other people who practice other
occupations like vegetable vendors, domestic servants, garment traders, etc.