The internet revolutionized the world of computing and communications as never else. The Telegraph, Phone, Television, and Computer invention set the way for this unparalleled capability convergence. The Internet is at once a resource for worldwide communication, a tool for distribution of information, and a platform for cooperation and networking between individuals and their computers without regard to geographic location. The Internet is one of the most productive examples of the effects of continued innovation and contribution to the information technology research and development.The nation, industry and academia have been collaborators in developing and implementing this innovative new technology, beginning with the early experiments in packet switching.
The Internet is a worldwide large area network linking computer systems across the globe. It includes many high-bandwidth network lines which form the “backbone” Internet. These lines are linked to major Internet hubs and transmit data to other locations, such as web servers and ISPs.
You must have access to an Internet service provider ( ISP) that serves as a middleman for you and the Internet to connect to the Internet. Many ISPs provide Internet internet service with a cable, DSL, or fiber link. The Wi-Fi router is still attached to an ISP which provides Internet connectivity when you connect to the Internet using a public Wi-Fi signal. Also the wireless communication towers have to connect to an Internet service provider to provide Internet connectivity to mobile users.
Benefits of internet in our life
- Information, knowledge, and learning.
- Connectivity, communication, and sharing.
- Address, mapping, and contact information.
- Banking, bills, and shopping.
- Selling and making money.
- Collaboration, work from home, and access to a global workforce.
- Donations and funding.
The “G” is actually “GENERATION.” The speed of the internet depends on the signal intensity seen in alphabets like 2 G , 3 G, 4 G etc. right next to the signal bar on the home screen when you are connecting to the internet. Each generation is defined as a collection of telecommunications network specifications, describing a specific cell phone system’s technical implementation. The speed increases, and also changes the technology used to achieve that speed. For eg, 1 G offers 2.4 kbps, 2 G offers 64 Kbps and is GSM-based, 3 G offers 144 kbps-2 mbps, while 4 G offers 100 Mbps-1 Gbps and is LTE-based.
The purpose of wireless communication is to provide high-quality, secure connectivity much like wired communication (optical fiber), and each new service generation represents a significant step in that direction. This technological journey began from 1 G in 1979 and goes on to 5G.
Each of the Generations has standards that have to be met to use the G terminology officially. There are organizations which are responsible for standardizing any mobile technology generation. — generation has criteria defining issues such as speed, delay, etc. that must be met to be considered part of that generation.Building on the research and development that has happened since the last generation, each generation. 1 G was not used to describe wireless technologies until 2 G was released, or the second version. As the cellular networks went from analog to digital, this was a big technical change.
This was the first cell phone technology generation. In the late 70’s the very first wave of commercial telecommunications network was launched with strictly enforced requirements being set in the 80’s. Telecom (now known as Telstra) introduced it in 1987, Australia received its first cellular mobile phone network using an analog 1 G system. 1 G is an analog technology and, generally speaking, phones had poor battery life and voice quality was high without much security, and sometimes calls dropped. These are the analog telecommunications standards adopted in the 1980s, and persisted until 2 G wireless telecommunications replaced them.
Nippon Telegraph and Telecommunications (NTT) unveiled the first wave of mobile networks-or 1 G as they were retroactively called as the second generation was adopted-in Tokyo in 1979. By 1984 NTT had rolled up 1 G to protect Japan as a whole.
The US authorised the first 1G operations in 1983, and the Motorola’s DynaTAC was one of the first ‘cell’ phones to see widespread stateside use. Several years back, other nations including Canada and the UK put out their own 1 G networks.
1 G technology, however, was facing a number of disadvantages. There was poor visibility, and low sound clarity. There was no roaming service for different networks and there was no synchronization for systems because different systems worked at different frequency ranges. Worse of all, there was no encryption of calls and someone with a radio scanner could drop in on a call.
Notwithstanding these limitations and a strong $3,995 price tag ($9,660 in today’s money), by 1990 the DynaTAC somehow managed to pick up an impressive 20 million global subscribers. There was no going back; 1G’s popularity opened the way for 2nd generation, simply named 2G.
Advantages of a 1G
- Improve voice clarity
- The network uses the analog signal
- Reduce noise in the line
- Secrecy and safety to data and voice calls
- Consume less battery power
Disadvantages of a 1G
- Poor voice quality
- Large phone size
- Poor battery life
- No security
- It makes use of the mobile phone with the analog signal more difficult and this signal are suffer from interference problem
- Limited capacity
- Poor hand-off reliability
- Very slow speed
Cell phones got their first major upgrade as they moved from 1 G to 2G. The main difference between the two mobile telephone services (1 G and 2 G) is that the 1 G network radio signals are analog, while 2 G networks are digital. This generation’s key motivation was to deliver a safe and effective means of communication. It applied the CDMA and GSM definition. Small data service provided, including sms and mms. In 1991, Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj) commercially launched second generation 2 G cellular telecom networks on the Finnish GSM standard. 2 G capabilities are achieved by allowing multiple users on a single channel via multiplexing.
In 2 G mobile phones are also used along with voice for data. The technical change from 1 G to 2 G added many of the essential features we still have today, such as SMS, internal roaming, phone calls, call delay and service-based billing, e.g. costs based on long distance calls and real-time billing. 2 G peak bandwidth for General Packet Radio Service ( GPRS) is 50 Kbps or 1 Mbps for Improved GSM Evolution Data Extensions (EDGE). The lesser-known 2.5 G and 2.75 G were an transitional model that bridged the difference before taking the big jump from 2 G to 3 G broadband networks.
In 1991 the second wave of mobile networks, or 2 G, was introduced in Finland under the GSM standard. Calls could be encrypted for the first time, and wireless voice calls with less noise and sound crackling became substantially smoother.
Yet 2 G was so much more than telecommunications; it helped pave the groundwork of a technological revolution for nothing short than that. People could send text messages (SMS), image messages, and multimedia messages (MMS) to their phones for the first time. 1G’s analog history gives way to the new world that 2G offers. This lead to widespread acceptance on a scale unmatched by consumers and companies alike.
While the transmission rates of 2 G were originally just around 9.6 kbit / s, the operators raced to invest in new facilities including mobile cell towers. At the end of the period it was possible to achieve speeds of 40 kbit / s and EDGE links delivered speeds up to 500 kbit / s. 2 G revolutionized the market climate amid comparatively slow speeds, which changed the world forever.
Advantages of 2G
- It allows digitisation and compression of voice signals. So on the frequency spectrum, they ‘re more efficient than 1G.
- They launched mobile data services in the form of text messaging through SMS.
- The details and the speech signals are encrypted digitally. Protection against eavesdropping and fraud thus increased multiple.
- Electric signals use less fuel at the pump. And so cell sets are much more energy-efficient than their counterparts with 1G.
Things were already pretty sluggish and the GPRS system ageed poorly, the way it performed and the speeds and stability it could bring. However, 3 G was here and has been declared the solution to all our problems. New bands were specially designed for 3 G and auctioned around the world for enormous amounts of money and although they were mostly picked up by others we recognised like Orange, O2 and Vodafone, emerging players like “3” still came out. The 3 G platform is significantly different to GPRS. It required new antenna to be rolled out but 3G-enabled devices saw rocket speeds where they were installed, fast, “always on” style connectivity, and 3 G had no of the problems GPRS always had.
Mobile use was beginning to take off. We downloaded software, and began streaming stuff on youtube. Like its enabler, social media took off at the same time and matched 3 G amazingly well. Just a few short years and a few smartphones and our use of cell phones changed forever.] 3 G speeds began at a potential 384kbps which sounds sluggish, but 2.5 G speeds never got close to the 400kbps speeds and that was just the beginning for 3G. Superior technologies allowed 3 G to thrive in the years to come and boy made it thrive!
3G mobile operators had make “evolutionary” upgrades to existing networks while simultaneously planning their “revolutionary” new mobile broadband networks. This lead to the establishment of two distinct 3G families: 3GPP and 3GPP2.
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) was formed in 1998 to foster deployment of 3G networks that descended from GSM. 3GPP technologies evolved as follows.
• General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) offered speeds up to 114 Kbps.
• Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) reached up to 384 Kbps.
• UMTS Wideband CDMA (WCDMA) offered downlink speeds up to 1.92 Mbps.
• High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) boosted the downlink to 14Mbps.
• LTE Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) is aiming for 100 Mbps.
Advantages of 3G
- Faster data transfer rate
- Availability of fixed
- Multimedia services are available
- Anywhere access to the internet.
- Cheap call rate in worldwide.
- Security and reliability are more
- Always online devices
- Provide interoperability among service providers
- Customers will get high-speed network for the data communication
- Anywhere access to the internet
- Customers can use all the facilities at the same time
- Customers can see video
- Good for data-intensive application
- Customer will get wireless broadband
- Video call and big MMS
- Uninterrupted video streaming on phones
- It is extremely faster than previous networks
- An application that is more data-intensive can be developed and used
- Picture messing allows products as well as problems to be shown visually
Disadvantages of 3G
- Needs different handsets
- Insufficient bandwidth
- Power consumption is high
- Require closer base station and are expensive
- Spectrum license cost
- High expenses of 3G phones
- 3G compatible handset
- Connection rate
- Separate 3G phones are needed
- A 3G cell phone is more costly compared to 2G cell
- Data/voice and roaming and also work together has not yet been implemented
4 G is the fourth generation of mobile networking technologies. It carries on from cell technologies with 3 G (third generation) and 2 G (second generation). 2 G technologies introduced in the 1990’s allowed wireless telephone calls to be made and messages sent. But 3 G arrived in 2003, allowing you to search web sites, make phone calls, and stream music and video on the move. 4 G infrastructure builds on what 3 G does but does so all at a much quicker speed.
4 G is the fourth generation of cellular broadband network technology which succeeds 3G. A 4 G system must provide capabilities defined by ITU in IMT Advanced. Potential and existing technologies include improved mobile network connectivity, IP telephony, gaming services, handheld high-definition tv, video conferencing, and 3D TV.
The Long Term Evolution ( LTE) first-release standard was commercially deployed in 1998 in Oslo, Norway and Stockholm, Sweden, and has since been deployed across most parts of the world. However, it has been questioned that first-release versions of 4 G LTE will be considered.
Benefits of 4G Internet
- Better spectral efficiency
- High speed
- High capacity
- High bandwidth
- Tight network security
- High usability: any time, anywhere and any with technology
- Support for multimedia services low transmission cost
- Low cost per bit
- A seamless network of multiple protocols and air interface
- Affordable communication system
- Have easier access to services and application
- Increases the level of use of synchronization
- Machine to machine communication provided
- Global access, service portability, and a variety of quality of services provided
Standard 4 G (or 4 G LTE) is around 5 or 7 times quicker than 3 G, with potential speeds of up to around 150Mbps. It is equal to average theoretical real life speeds of about 80Mbps.
With mobile 4 G, you can download a 2 GB HD video in 3 minutes 20 seconds, although on a regular 3 G network it will take more than 25 minutes.
a faster variant of 4 G is also available, called 4 G LTE-Advanced (also known as LTE-A, 4.5 G or 4G+).
This offers theoretical velocities of up to 1.5Gbps, but the actual LTE-A network crop has a maximum potential velocity of 300Mbps with real world velocities dropping even lower.
Upload rates are not the only thing that has been enhanced, because 4G still has a faster response time than 3G because of reduced ‘latency.’ That means a computer connected to a mobile 4 G network receives a better response to a question than the same system connected to a mobile 3 G network.
The increased delay periods, reduced from 80 milliseconds (3 G) to around 45 milliseconds (4 G) on screen, does not seem that significant. But when playing online gaming and watching live content they will make a big difference. Find out more on the gaming advantages of 4G.
clear voice calls
Voice over LTE (VoLTE) is similar to Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), which uses voice-over applications such as Skype to enable Internet phone calls. VoLTE does indeed ride on the back of the 4 G network and bring crystal-clear voice calls and video chat to your 4 G mobile phone.
One downside is that it helps you to call and email when you still have a 4 G link, when you previously couldn’t.
Disadvantage of 4G
- The battery uses is more
- Hard to implement
- Need complected hardware
- It needed to avail services of 4G technology
- The equipment required for a next-generation network is still very expensive
- The network has more problem has security issues
- Not many areas of 4G services yet
- Network protocol and standardization have not to be defined
- High data prize for consumers
- Need different handsets
- Power consumption is high
- Roaming and data or voice work together has not yet been implemented
- Require closer base station and are expensive
fastest 5G Internet
The 5 G broadband network is the 5th generation. It is a new regional wireless interface adopting networks of 1 G , 2 G, 3 G, and 4G. 5 G allows a new type of network built to link nearly everything, including computers, objects and apps, and everything together.
5 G wireless technology is designed to deliver higher multi-Gbps data peak speeds, ultra-low latency, greater reliability, massive network capacity, increased availability, and a more consistent user experience. Better productivity and usability improvements enable innovative product interfaces and bind new sectors.
5 G is a single wireless network for enhanced capabilities. This was built with an expanded capacity to enable user interfaces of the next generation, motivate new delivery models and deliver new services.
5 G will expand the mobile ecosystem into new realms, with high speeds, superior reliability and negligible latency. 5 G will affect every sector, making transportation faster, remote hospitals, agriculture efficiency, digitized logistics – and more – a reality.
Super speed 5G Internet
5 G is planned to offer peak data speeds up to 20 Gbps based on IMT-2020 specifications. Qualcomm Technologies’ latest 5 G systems, the Qualcomm ® Snapdragon ™ X55 and Snapdragon X60 Modem-RF Systems, are designed to support up to 7.5 Gbps in downlink peak data speeds.
Yet 5 G is more more than just how fast it is. In addition to higher peak data speeds, 5 G is planned for extending into additional technologies, such as mmWave, to offer a lot of network power.
Therefore, 5 G can provide much lower latency for more immediate response and can provide a more seamless overall user experience so that data rates remain consistently high even when users move about. And a Gigabit LTE coverage base supports the new 5 G NR mobile network which can provide seamless Gigabit-class access.
Benefits of 5G
- It posses a very high speed
- High capacity
- More efficient
- Longer battery life
- High security
- High data rates
- Low cost per bit
- More attractive and more effective
- It supports multimedia, voice, and internet
- It offers high resolution
- Bidirectional large bandwidth for made mobile users
- Availability at low cost
- Dynamic information access
- Data bandwidth of >1 Gbps or higher
- Finest quality of services (QoS)
- Possible to provide uniform uninterrupted consistent connectivity across all over the world
- Technology to gather all network on one platform
- It also offers global access and service portability
- It is very high uploading and downloading speed
- Easily manageable with the previous generation
- Technological sound to support heterogeneous services
- You can control your PCs by handsets
Greater speed in transmissions
Transmission speeds will exceed 15 or 20 Gbps. Through loving a faster pace we will access files , programs and remote software in a completely simple and unwaited way. Through intensifying cloud usage, certain machines (mobile phones, servers, etc.) can be less reliant on internal memory and data storage, and a vast number of processors do not need to be mounted on those objects because processing will be performed on the cloud.
For example , being able to permit apps to be accessed remotely as if it were running on personal computers would allow mobile applications (APPs) not to be enabled in the terminal and operated directly from the cloud. Just as the information would no longer need to be stored in computer memory (photos, images, etc.).
Latency is the time that elapses, when we put an order on our system before the operation takes place. With 5 G the delay would be ten times shorter than in 4 G, allowing automated activities to be carried out in real time.
Thanks to this low latency and the increase of the sensors, it is possible to monitor the equipment of an manufacturing factory, track logistics or remote transportation, surgical procedures in which the doctor may communicate with a patient on the other side of the world by means of remotely controlled precise instrumentation or full control of remote transportation systems, automatically and without medications.
Greater number of connected devices
With 5 G the number of gadgets that can be connected to the network significantly increases, it can go into a millionaire per square kilometer range.
Both wired computers should have access to instant internet connections and can share information with one another in real time. This favors the IOT.
A common home is expected to have a hundred wired gadgets that can transmit and receive information in real time. If we had to conceive about manufacturing plants we would be thinking of thousands of wired computers.
A greater number of connected devices would make the autonomous car and the smart cities.
The 5 G also requires virtual networks to be introduced (network slicing), subnetworks to be developed, in order to offer more tailored access to different needs.
The development of subnetworks would provide similar characteristics to a portion of the network, being a programmable network and enabling to optimize communications, which may be the emergencies in front of other customers, adding for example various latencies or prioritizing them in relation to the network so that they can not be impacted by potential mobile network overloads.
Disadvantages of a 5G
- Development infrastructure need high cost
- Many of the old devices(1G, 2G, 3G, 4G) would not be the component of 5G, so all of them need to be replaced with a new one – expensive deal
- Security and privacy issue yet to be solved
- A 5G smartphone is costly.